Drip irrigation system consists of four parts: water source engineering, first hub (including pump, power machine, filter, fertilizer injection device, measuring and control instrument, etc.), water transmission and distribution pipes at all levels and full head, etc. The main components of the system are as follows.
1. Power and pressurization equipment of drip irrigation system include pump, electric motor or diesel engine and other power machinery. Except for the self-pressurization system, these equipment are the power and flow source of the micro-irrigation system.
2. Water purification equipment or facilities for drip irrigation systems include sand (sediment) pond, primary interceptor, cyclone sand splitter, screen filter, and media filter.
According to the water quality conditions, a combination can be used. The main function of the screen filter is to filter out the suspended matter in the irrigation water to ensure that the whole drip irrigation system, especially the drip head, is not blocked. The mesh size depends on the size of the dirt particles to be filtered out. Generally, 200 mesh is required to remove sediment of 75 microns in diameter.
Gravel material filter is made of washed and sorted gravel and sand material, filled into the metal cylinder in a certain order, which has a good filtering effect for various organic or organic dirt and suspended algae. Cyclone sand splitter is to rely on centrifugal force to separate sand particles with a specific gravity greater than water from water but can not remove organic material.
3. Dripper of drip irrigation system Water flows from the capillary pipe into the dripper, injecting the irrigation water into the soil under certain working pressure. It is the core of the drip irrigation system. Water passes through the dripper and drips or seeps out at a constant low flow rate and then spreads around in the soil in the form of unsaturated flow under the drip head.
4. Fertilizer and pesticide injection devices and containers for drip irrigation systems include differential pressure fertilizer, venturi injector, diaphragm or piston injection pump, fertilizer or pesticide solution storage tank, etc. It must be installed in front of a filter to prevent undissolved fertilizer particles from clogging the dripper.
There are three ways of fertilizer injection: one is to use a small pump to pump fertilizer into the dry pipe; another is to use the pressure difference caused by the flow adjustment valve on the dry pipe to make the fertilizer injected into the dry pipe; the third is jet injection.
5. Drip irrigation system control, measurement equipment, including water and pressure gauges, various manual, mechanically operated, or electrically operated gate valves, such as hydraulic automatic control valves, flow regulators, etc.
6. Safety protection equipment of drip irrigation system such as pressure reducing valve, inlet and outlet valve, backstop valve, drainage valve, etc.