The dripper is an important equipment component in the drip tape irrigation system. It guarantees dripping water and the quality of the drip heads directly affects the irrigation quality. A considerable number of drippers are needed, and there are many types of drippers at home and abroad.
According to the structure and outflow form of the dripper, the drippers are usually divided into two categories: drip heads and drip irrigation pipes (belts).
Drip heads: The device that transforms the pressure water flow in the capillary into a dripping or fine flow shape through a passageway or hole is called a drip head.
According to the connection method between the drip head and the capillary
① Pipe-mounted drip heads (vertical installation);
② Pipe-interference drip heads (horizontal installation);
③ Internal-inlaid drip heads (spiral drip heads).
According to the flow state of the drip heads: turbulent flow drip heads and laminar flow drip heads (porous capillary, double-chamber tube, microtube).
According to the hydraulic compensation performance, the drip heads can be divided into two types: non-pressure compensation drip heads and pressure compensation drip heads.
① The pressure compensation drip heads use the effect of water flow pressure on the elastic body inside the drip heads to change the shape of the passageway (or hole) or change the cross-sectional area over water;
②The non-pressure compensation drip heads use the energy dissipation of the fixed water flow passage in the drip head, and their flow rates increase with the increase of the pressure.
Structural factors of the drip heads flow passage
The flow channel and its hydraulic characteristics of the drip head are closely related to the clogging resistance of the drip head. The length, width, water flow rate, and turbulence of the flow channel will all affect the clogging resistance of the drip head.
Manufacturing factors of the drip heads
The small characteristic size of the drip head is easy to cause clogging of the drip head flow passage due to the large ratio of the wall roughness of the flow channel to the characteristic size of the drip head flow channel. The characteristic size is usually small, so the roughness has a greater impact on its clogging resistance.
Operational management factors of the drip tape irrigation system
Unreasonable management factors during the operation of the drip tape irrigation system will also affect its clogging resistance. For example, improper filter screen, unreasonable construction and installation, use of drip tape irrigation system to apply fertilizers, etc. will all cause drip heads blockage.
The key to preventing drip heads blockage is to configure the filter equipment reasonably.
If the impurities in the drip irrigation source are high, preventive measures should be taken from the entrance of the drip tape irrigation system.
If the impurities in the water are mainly sand and sediment, a combination of centrifugal filter and screen filter can be selected for the head filtration system;
If the impurities are mainly organic sludge and algae, sandstone filtration and screen filtration can be selected;
If both sandstone and sediment algae are present in the water, a combination of centrifugal filtration, sandstone filtration, and screen filtration is needed.