Depending on the arrangement of the drip tape irrigation system, a variety of fertilization methods can be used. Commonly used are gravity self-pressure fertilization method, pump suction fertilization method, pump fertilization method, bypass tank fertilization method, Venturi fertilization method, proportional fertilization method, etc. Different fertilization methods need different fertilization equipment. For example, irrigation venturi fertilizer injectors are needed for Venturi fertilization method. The specific fertilization method to use should consult a professional or refer to more detailed information.
1. The problem of excessive irrigation
The biggest concern with drip trickle irrigation is over-irrigation. Many users always feel that drip trickle irrigation produces less water, and they are not at ease, and as a result, the irrigation time is prolonged. One consequence of prolonged irrigation time is wasting water, and another consequence is that nutrients that are not absorbed by the soil are leached below the root layer, wasting fertilizer.
Especially nitrogen leaching. Usually, water-soluble compound fertilizers contain urea and nitrate nitrogen, which are the most easily washed away. Excessive irrigation often presents symptoms of nitrogen deficiency, yellowing of leaves, and stunted plant growth.
2. The problem of pipe washing after fertilization
Generally, drip water first, and start fertilizing after the flat drip irrigation pipe is completely filled with water. In principle, the longer the fertilization time, the better. After fertilization, continue to drip water for half an hour to discharge all the residual fertilizer in the pipeline. Many users do not wash the tube after dripping fertilizer, and finally algae and microorganisms grow on the dripper, causing the dripper to be blocked. The exact time of dripping water can be monitored with a conductivity meter.
The drip trickle irrigation directly fertilizes the roots. It is therefore important to know the depth of the root distribution of the crops being managed. The easiest way is to dig through the root layer with a small shovel to see the depth of the wetting, so you can judge whether there is excessive irrigation. Or put tensiometers in the ground to monitor the depth of irrigation.
Many fertilizers are themselves inorganic salts. When the concentration is too high, it can "burn" leaves or roots. The concentration must be controlled by spraying or dripping fertilizer through the irrigation system. The most accurate way is to measure the conductivity of the sprayed fertilizer or the fertilizer from the water dripper outlet.
Usually the range of 1.0-3.0ms/cm is safe. Or it is safe to dilute the water-soluble fertilizer 400-1000 times, or add 1-3 kg of water-soluble compound fertilizer to each square of water for spraying. For drip trickle irrigation, it doesn't hurt to have a slightly higher concentration due to the buffering effect of the soil.
Since the micro-irrigation system has lower pressure requirements, it can maximize energy savings. Taking the drip tape irrigation system of a citrus orchard with an area of 100 mu as an example, the annual electricity consumption is about 1200 kWh, and the annual energy input per mu is only 12 kWh. The drip trickle irrigation is the most energy-efficient method of irrigation and fertilization.