Since the 1970s, sprinkler irrigation has become popular in Chinese tea gardens. Production practices have proven that water-saving irrigation equipment is a more advanced method for tea garden irrigation.
The tea garden sprinkler system mainly consists of water source, canal system, water pump, power, pressure pipeline, and sprinklers. According to different combination modes, it can be divided into three types: mobile, fixed, and semi-fixed.
The mobile sprinkler irrigation system consists of power equipment, pressure water pipes, and sprinklers, which are set up in tea gardens with water sources. This device has the characteristics of being sensitive to use, low cost, simple operation, and high utilization rate. However, it requires more time and effort for transportation and movement. In addition to the sprinkler head, the fixed sprinkler system is fixed, and its main and branch pipes are often buried in the soil layer of the tea garden.
A pump station consists of a water source, power machine, and water pump, or a dry pump station with sufficient natural water head height can be selected. The branch pipe forms a fixed sprinkler system. The sprinkler head is installed on the vertical pipe connected to the branch pipe and can be used as a circular or fan-shaped rotating sprinkler head. If the area is large, several sets of sprinkler heads need to be equipped for cyclical group rotation irrigation.
This utility model has the advantages of simple operation, labor-saving, high production efficiency, and convenient automatic control irrigation. It is suitable for tea gardens and nurseries with long irrigation cycles but requires more equipment and pipelines and higher investment.
The semi-fixed sprinkler system has the main pipe buried underground, uses a fixed pump station for water supply, or directly uses natural water head. The branch pipes, vertical pipes, and sprinklers can be moved and connected to the top valve of the main pipe and the branch pipes for field sprinkler operations.
Water source: from the daily and production water supply system of the secondary pipeline, with a diameter of 35 mm. The water source of the water supply system is a well 120 meters deep, which is lifted to a 100 cubic meter reservoir in the second stage, and the water pressure from tea garden to tea garden is about 44 Pa.
Pump. Transport water from the water source to the pipe network.
Filtering. Filter the water to prevent blockage of the pipeline and drip irrigation belt and ensure the normal operation of the system.
Drip irrigation monitoring method: galvanized iron pipes with a diameter of 46 mm.
Drip tape: black soft hose, foldable, with a diameter of 20 mm, and two small holes every 20 cm for water to enter the tea garden.
Plugs: block the end of the drip tape.
Bends or internal connections: the drip tape is used for bending or extending.
Three links: connect the drip tape to the lateral pipe.
Water saving: In drip irrigation, tea tree roots slowly enter the soil through small holes, which not only does not produce surface runoff but also greatly reduces surface evaporation compared with sprinkler irrigation, which can save 2-3 times the water usage.
Maintain excellent soil physical properties: drip irrigation can reduce soil compaction, reduce surface runoff, prevent the loss of topsoil and fertilizers, and because drip irrigation water seeps into soil capillaries, the soil is deep and wide, which is conducive to the absorption of tea roots. In this way, excellent conditions are provided for the growth and development of tea trees.
In the tea garden with drip irrigation, due to timely relief of drought, basal or topdressing can fully exert the fertilizer effect, increase the accumulation of organic matter in tea trees, promote the sprouting of tea buds and the growth of new shoots, thereby improving the yield and quality of tea.