Because China's territory is vast and crosses different regions, different drip trickle irrigation technology modes have been formed due to differences in irrigation water sources, power supply conditions, geographical conditions, and crop types. The main modes include fixed drip trickle irrigation technology mode, mobile drip trickle irrigation technology mode, self-pressure drip trickle irrigation technology mode, automated drip trickle irrigation technology mode, low-pressure micro-water head irrigation technology mode, and micro-spray strip irrigation technology mode, each with its own characteristics.
This water-saving irrigation technology is currently the main drip trickle irrigation technology in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Jilin, Liaoning and other regions of China. It is mainly used for cotton, corn, wheat, soy sauce tomatoes, potatoes, fruits and vegetables, ecological, and economic forests.
The field irrigation system of this mode is mainly composed of the head, main pipe, branch pipe, and capillary pipe. According to the location where the capillary pipe and branch pipe are laid, it is divided into surface drip trickle irrigation, subsurface drip trickle irrigation, and underground drip trickle irrigation. Because the head and field pipe network of this mode are fixed in a certain position according to the design, it is called a fixed drip trickle irrigation technology mode.
The field irrigation system of this water-saving irrigation mode is mainly composed of a mobile head, branch pipe, and capillary pipe. The head is equipped with a self-suction combined filtration station and an engineering filtration device, which is traction and driven by a small tractor (or driven by a small diesel engine). The head can move (one head can be shared by multiple fields), and the field pipe network is relatively fixed.
Characteristics: There is no buried pipe, and the one-time investment is less, about 50% of the fixed drip trickle irrigation; the operating cost is low, about 30% lower than that of fixed drip trickle irrigation; the configuration and use are convenient, and it is suitable for small scattered blocks and areas where the power grid is unmatched.
This technology mode has the same field facilities and irrigation technology as the fixed drip trickle irrigation technology mode. The difference is that no power pressure is required during irrigation, relying on the natural height difference formed by the natural slope drop of the terrain to meet the pressure required by the drip trickle irrigation system.
Characteristics: Self-pressure drip trickle irrigation requires no energy consumption, and the operating cost is about 20% lower than that of fixed drip trickle irrigation. It is suitable for areas with high water sources or pressurized water can be used, or areas where the natural slope drop of the ground is ≥15‰.
The automated drip trickle irrigation system consists of a computer control center, automated weather station, automatic quantitative fertilizer applicator, automatic backwash filtration device, automatic simulated field soil evaporation instrument, automatic soil moisture tension meter, and remotely controlled terminal controller (CRTU), hydraulic valve or solenoid valve. By automatically monitoring soil moisture conditions and combining climate and soil conditions, timely and appropriate automatic irrigation and fertilization can be carried out for crops.
Characteristics: High degree of automation, labor-saving, and water-saving by 5% to 10% compared to manual control, which is the direction for the future development of drip trickle irrigation technology.